In a layman's word, Infant Mortality Rate in 2021 is a percentage form of the ratio of a child being dead before his or her first birthday. As per the recent updates available, Afghanistan has the highest infant mortality, where 100 infants died for every 1000 new-borns.
On the other hand, in India, the number is 28.3 for every 1000 new-borns as reported in the year 2019. This is lower in comparison to the worldwide ratio, however, it can be even better if we take a periodical strategy followed towards the nullification. Though every year several world pediatrics conferences are being held and thousands of research works are being put up but the output of those events are not appealing.
In spite of the strategic numbers, if we go into a deeper version of it - it is easily understandable that an infant when it's born needs special care and attention including medical and environmental, which can have a tremendous positive hit on the mortality rate. To decide and implement a couple of strategies, it is foremost important to know about the basic cause for it. Nevertheless, these are something that has the highest numbers of inputs when we talk about an Infant Mortality Rate. Let us take a look at a few.
What are the main causes of increase in Infant Mortality Rate in 2021?
Where an Infant is born with certain defects which are life-threatening on an immediate basis after birth or could be a chance of mortality in near future. Sometimes, it causes reported medical complications of parents, especially of the mother. As an example of the kinds of complications, we can take single-gene disorders, chromosomal disorders, and physical malformations.
The five most serious birth defects are:
- Congenital heart defects
- Neural tube defects
- Haemoglobin disorders
- Down's syndrome
- Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Preterm birth and low birth weight:
There can be a number of reasons for this which includes the Mother's health, complications in the Mother's uterus. Though the situation can be avoided by proper medical care sometimes, however, it does not guarantee. On the other hand, though there is a chance of an Infant dies due to this but there are scenarios where he or she can survive as well. These scenarios ask for good and trained medical care to not to turn up as a cause of Infant Mortality.
Maternal pregnancy complications:
The complications can cause weak childbirth who is merely not capable of surviving. Although, there could be reasons where it comes genetically, for much of the cases it generates due to Gestational Diabetes, High blood pressure, Anaemia, Infections, Breech position, which can be taken care of by the regular medical check-up of the would-be mother.
This basically happens after birth where it includes suffocation, head injuries, etc. Again this can be easily avoided.
After discussing the basic reasons for infant mortality, we can clearly see, it is a situation that can be easily dealt with. It just takes a little more knowledge and proper medical care. It does not take a lot to do, however, failing to this can cause a death of a life. Now let us go further and see what are the small easy changes we can make to create a world with more young’s.
How can we decrease the Infant Mortality Rate in 2021 ?
Firstly and most importantly, a mother should be healthy enough to carry a child in her womb. Hence, once the pregnancy is confirmed it is important for the mother to eat healthily and think healthy.
In 2021 as well, we see a tendency of killing female fetuses in many of the places. We need to know that there is a balance needed everywhere. Even we have been through such scenarios where a female infant is being killed by its own family member. Hence, the fetus dedication should be our first goal to the hour, and eventually, proper parental education by medical staff or NGO’s can modify the scenarios.
Now, it is important to train a would-be mother for afterbirth child care. Earlier the elders of the house used to take the charge; however, in today's nuclear generation it is important to know: "How to handle things for a newborn". We see scenarios where the mother is unaware of the feeding or bathing system of an infant and this turns up as a death of a child.
Eventually, it is said that breastmilk has a magical power to clarify 99 percent of health hazards for a newborn, and adding to this, it also makes an infant stronger to come to the battleground of "survival for the fittest". Last but not the least, it is truly said "Being a mother is not easy". Now we know that how a small change can create magic towards an Infant Mortality rate.
There are several programmes rolled out world-wide like In 1997, the Govt. of India introduced the "Reproductive and Child Health" program to reduce infant, child, and maternal mortality.
There are several organisations which have dedicated themselves in child care and child care studies. Several Medical Conferences are being organised every year dedicated to Pediatrics, Pediatricians, Child Care Organisations to explore and submit latest research before the world. One such World Pediatrics Conference 2021 is being organized in Bangkok, Thailand in November on 19th and 20th, 2021. Interested researchers, pediatricians and experts can still submit abstract if they want to speak at the prestigious Asian Conference 2021.
To conclude this topic we need to summarize the work that we need to remember to contribute in decreasing the Infant mortality rate.
1) Would-be mothers play a great role here so, it is our duty to keep her healthy physically and mentally.
2) Vitamin and mineral deficiency causes an ample number of hazards to a mother, newborn, or infant. Hence, healthy food is needed and breastfeeding is important.
3) Newborn jaundice is another reason to be mentioned here. Though it is not harmful most of the time, a very high level of bilirubin can damage the brain of a newborn.
4) Proper medical attention from a trained staff is also an important factor and failing to this can be life-threatening. Hence, proper knowledge of things is required and it is our duty to reach out to the maximum family, would-be mothers. Adding to this, it would be great if a centre can look after an individual to have proper transportation communication, at the time of need.
5) Fetus dedication should be stopped.
6) A pregnant lady should always look for a hospital to give birth, not a "Dai ma".
The U.S.A has the lowest mortality rate in the world. It just takes a little more awareness and we can also create the miracle right from the next minute.